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Regulations relating to mycotoxins in food. Regulations relating to essay book, mycotoxins have been established in many countries to protect the consumer from the essay harmful effects of these compounds. Different factors play a role in the decision-making process of setting limits for mycotoxins. These include scientific factors, for essay quote book title, example the availability of nursing shortage essays, toxicological data and occurrence data, detailed knowledge about possibilities for essay book, sampling and analysis, and socio-economic issues. By the end of 2003, approximately 100 countries (covering approximately 85% of the world’s inhabitants) had specific regulations or detailed guidelines for mycotoxins in food. The regulations were related to aflatoxins (B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 ), aflatoxin M 1 , trichothecenes (deoxynivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), fumonisins (B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 ), agaric acid, ergot alkaloids, ochratoxin A, patulin, phomopsins, sterigmatocystin, and zearalenone. In Europe, and in particular in the EU, regulatory and scientific interest in mycotoxins has undergone a development in the last decade from autonomous national activity towards more EU-driven activity with a structural and network character. Harmonized EU limits now exist for 40 mycotoxin–food combinations. Automatique Lancia Thesis? It is expected this number will grow in 2007 to approximately 50. The direct or indirect influence of European organizations and programs on the EU mycotoxin regulatory developments is book title, significant.
They include the European Food Safety Authority, the Scientific Cooperation on Questions relating to Food, the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed, the creation of an EU Community Reference Laboratory for Mycotoxins and a mandate of the EC to the European Standardization Committee in methods for essays, analysis for mycotoxins in food. Large pan-European research and networking projects as “BioCop” and essay book title, “MoniQA” are also important. Mycotoxins are metabolites of fungi capable of having acute toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, immunotoxic, and oestrogenic effects in 12 sat essay man and animals. Toxicity syndromes resulting from intake of mycotoxins by man and animals are known to as “mycotoxicoses”. Mycotoxicoses have been known for a long time, but until the early 1960s they remained the “neglected diseases” [ 1 ]. Since the discovery of the aflatoxins in quote 1960 and subsequent recognition that mycotoxins are of significant health concern to both humans and animals, regulations gradually developed for mycotoxins in food and feed. In the 12 sat essay example early days of essay, mycotoxin regulations these measures focused mainly on the aflatoxins. They were established by steps industrialized countries, and limits often had an advisory or guideline character. Over the years, the number of countries with known specific mycotoxin regulations has increased from 33 in essay quote book title 1981 [ 2 ] to 56 in 1987 [ 3 ], 77 in book 1995 [ 4 ], and 100 in essay title 2003 [ 5 ]. De Vitesse Automatique Lancia Thesis? Current regulations encompass 13 different mycotoxins or groups of mycotoxins, and specific limits have been established for many food and feed commodities and book title, products.
Until the late 1990s setting of mycotoxin regulations was mostly a national affair. Gradually, several economic communities (e.g. EU (European Union), MERCOSUR (Mercado Comun del Sur), Australia and New Zealand) harmonized their mycotoxin regulations, thereby overruling existing national regulations. Current regulations are increasingly based on scientific opinions of essay, authoritative bodies, for example the FAO/WHO Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of the United Nations (JECFA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Essay Quote Book? At the same time, requirements for essay, adequate sampling and analytical methods put high demands on other professional organizations, for example AOAC International and the European Standardization Committee (CEN). In this article the factors affecting the constitution of mycotoxin regulations, and the role of different international organizations in title the process of establishing and enforcing regulations, will be discussed. Some general observations are presented about the current situation on worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food. De Vitesse Lancia? The focus will then be directed on essay quote, the European Union and de vitesse lancia thesis, the many European activities related to these regulatory developments. Factors affecting the promulgation of mycotoxin regulations. the availability of toxicological data of mycotoxins.
the availability of exposure data of mycotoxins. knowledge of the quote book title distribution of mycotoxins concentrations within commodity or product lots. the availability of analytical methods. legislation in other countries with which trade contacts exist. the need for sufficient food supply. The first two factors provide the information necessary for hazard assessment and exposure assessment, respectively, the nursing main bases of quote book, risk assessment. Risk assessment is the scientific evaluation of the probability of occurrence of known or potential adverse health effects resulting from human exposure to food-borne hazards. It is the primary scientific basis for promulgation of regulations.
The third and fourth factors are important factors enabling practical enforcement of mycotoxin regulations, through adequate sampling and analysis procedures. The last two factors are merely socio-economic in nature but are equally important in the decision-making process to establish meaningful regulations and limits for mycotoxins in food and feed. Regulations are primarily based on known toxic effects. For the mycotoxins currently considered most significant (aflatoxins B 1 , B 2 , G 1 and G 2 ; aflatoxin M 1 ; ochratoxin A; patulin; fumonisins B 1 , B 2 and B 3 ; zearalenone; T-2 and HT-2 toxins; and deoxynivalenol) the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA—a scientific advisory body of the World Health Organization (WHO) and gmat essay, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)) has evaluated their hazard in several sessions [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ]. In February 2001 a special JECFA session was completely devoted to mycotoxins. Essay Book Title? Two reports have appeared about this session, a shorter version [ 12 ] and a longer version [ 13 ]. These reports provide good and detailed insight into the process of risk assessment of mycotoxins. The reports addressed several concerns about the mycotoxins considered—their properties and metabolism, toxicological studies, and final risk evaluation.
With the mycotoxin evaluations the Committee discussed general considerations on sampling, analytical methods, associated intake issues, and control. Risks associated with mycotoxins depend on title, both hazard and exposure. The hazard of mycotoxins to individuals is probably more or less the same all over the world (although other factors are, sometimes, also important, e.g. hepatitis B virus infection in quote relation to the hazard of aflatoxins). Persuasive? Exposure is not the same, because of different levels of contamination and dietary habits in the various parts of the essay quote book world. Shephard [ 14 ] exemplified the significance of different exposure with some calculations for fumonisins, based on data from JECFA.
JECFA established a group provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for fumonisins B 1 , B 2 , and B 3 together of 2 ?g kg ?1 body weight per day [ 12 ]. This PMTDI is essay, easily exceeded by individuals on a maize-based diet, when maize consumption is essay book title, approximately 400 g per essay person per day, a situation found in some parts of Southern Africa. Quote Book? Shephard calculated that at a contamination level for fumonisins in maize of 2000 ?g kg ?1 (a level within the range of preparation, common regulatory limits) dietary exposure for a 60-kg adult would be 13 ?g kg ?1 body weight per day, or 650% of the PMTDI. In the developed world maize intake is usually less than 10 g per person per day [ 15 ] and food contaminated at levels as high as 12 mg kg ?1 can be consumed before dietary exposure exceeds the essay PMTDI set by JECFA. Effect of different daily maize consumption by populations worldwide on the setting of limits for fumonisins. Exposure assessment is an important aspect of risk assessment, and reliable data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in different commodities and data on food intake are needed. Quantitative evaluation of intake of mycotoxins is quite difficult. Book? During its 56th meeting JECFA stressed the importance of using validated analytical methods and application of analytical quality assurance (see also the section on analysis ) to ensure that the results of surveys provide a reliable assessment of intake [ 12 ]. In most of the JECFA reviews of mycotoxins analytical data on levels of contamination were often inadequate for developed countries and non-existent for developing countries. Because most mycotoxin contamination is heterogeneously distributed, adequate sampling is another important consideration for obtaining information on quote book, levels of contamination (see also the section on sampling ). In many countries activities take place that contribute to the risk-assessment process for mycotoxins. In the EU, for example, an important role is played by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).
EFSA makes use, where possible, of exposure and consumption data, generated by the European SCOOP activities (see the section “ The European dimension ” for more details about EFSA and essay steps, SCOOP). The distribution of the concentration of mycotoxins in products is an important factor to book title, be considered when establishing regulatory sampling criteria. The distribution can be very heterogeneous, as it is for aflatoxins in peanuts and figs. 12 Sat Essay Example? The number of contaminated peanut kernels in a lot is usually very low but the level of contamination within a kernel can be very high. If insufficient care is taken for representative sampling, the mycotoxin concentration in an inspected lot may therefore be estimated incorrectly. Similar situations could occur with many other mycotoxin/commodity combinations.
Adequate sampling is necessary to make justified management decisions about what to essay quote book title, do with lots that may be contaminated with mycotoxins. Because of variability among sample test results, mycotoxin concentrations in lots cannot be determined with 100% certainty by taking samples from the lot. Sampling plans for mycotoxins in different commodities, as developed by Whitaker [ 17 ] Several countries have gradually established detailed science-based sampling plans, which take into account the heterogeneous distribution of mycotoxins in agricultural commodities. Persuasive Essay Steps? Examples of official sampling plans for mycotoxins are those applied by the USA for essay quote book, aflatoxins in peanuts [ 18 ] and by the EU for several mycotoxins [ 19 ]. Spanjer [ 20 ] summarized some of the difficulties encountered when these EU sampling plans are followed in practice. Boite De Vitesse Automatique Thesis? This was illustrated by considering an EU sampling directive for import control on nuts packed in sacks—two food inspectors would need half a working day to essay title, sample only one container on just one ship. Spanjer indicated that in many other circumstances the situation is even more unmanageable—because the commodity is loaded in bulk or, just the opposite, when it consists of nursing, consumer or vacuum packages.
The EU sampling directive seems to essay title, offer the persuasive steps possibility of alternatives as it states: “If it is not possible to carry out the method of sampling described above because of the unacceptable commercial consequences resulting from damage to the lot (because of packaging forms, means of transport, etc) an essay, alternative method of sampling may be applied provided that it is as representative as possible and is fully described and documented”. But the directive lacks guidance, about what is considered “as representative as possible”. Spanjer recommended simplified sampling procedures, e.g. checking at import control only, to nursing, overcome some of the essay quote title problems. Legislation calls for monitoring methods. Gmat Essay? Reliable analytical methods must be available to title, enable enforcement of the regulations in daily practice.
In addition to reliability, simplicity is 12 sat example, desired, as it will affect the amount of essay quote book, data generated and the practicality of the steps ultimate measures taken. The reliability of mycotoxin analysis data can be improved by use of quote book, interlaboratory-validated methods of analysis (e.g. the methods of AOAC International and preparation, methods standardized by CEN). Essay Book? These methods have been largely developed in response to planned regulations for mycotoxins or regulations that came into force. The requirements for these methods were dictated by the needs, i.e. they had to be suitable for the (planned) regulated mycotoxin–matrix combination(s). The limits of determination of the methods had to be demonstrated to be low enough for essay preparation, precise and accurate determination of the mycotoxins of interest at regulatory levels. Methods were also developed and validated for toxin–matrix combinations for essay book title, which there were no regulations (yet), but for which the scientific community saw a need, e.g. for surveillance purposes. These developments eased the establishment of specific mycotoxin regulations. Analytical techniques used for mycotoxin regulatory analysis.
The size of the ball is shortage essays, proportional with the frequency of use of the technique (in 2004) [ 5 ] BCR and IRMM (certified) reference materials developed for mycotoxins (February 2007) [ 22 ] Certified reference material. Aflatoxin M 1 in milk powder. Aflatoxin M 1 calibrant. Aflatoxins in peanut butter. Aflatoxin B 1 in peanut meal. Aflatoxin B 1 in essay quote book title feedstuff. Ochratoxin A in 12 sat essay example wheat. Ochratoxin A calibrant. DON in maize and wheat.
T-2 and HT-2 calibrants. Zearalenone in maize. Regulations should, preferably, be brought into harmony with those in force in other countries with which trade contacts exist. In fact, this approach has been followed in the regions of the EU, MERCOSUR, and Australia and New Zealand, where harmonized regulations now exist for some mycotoxins. Strict regulatory actions may lead countries to ban or limit the import of commodities; this can make it difficult for exporting countries to essay quote book title, find or maintain markets for their products. Distortion of the market because of mycotoxin regulations in importing countries could lead to export of the less contaminated food and feed, leaving inferior food and feed for the local market. In a World Bank report [ 24 ] estimates were made on the relationship between aflatoxin B 1 regulatory standards and trade flow. Studies for 12 sat essay, cereals and nuts predict significant losses for exporting countries (Africa) if stringent standards, such as those in force in the EU, were be adopted.
A more recent report [ 25 ], however, showed that border rejection did not necessarily affect the economic return for developing countries, e.g. the essay book African share of the EU market for dried fruit increased. Although border rejections were irritating to exporters, some producing countries increased their EU market share. The economic effect of strict mycotoxin regulations is not easy to predict. Wu [ 26 ] investigated the effect of stringent EU aflatoxin limits on the pistachio and almond industries. For the boite de vitesse pistachio industry the strict EU limits benefit exporters who have consistently high-quality products, because they can sell their products at a higher price.
Even exporters with low-quality products can benefit from the strict limits, because of the phenomenon called “technology forcing”. They adopt technologies enabling better control of aflatoxins. This happened with the Iranian pistachio industry. The almond industry, in contrast has mainly losers. The US almond industry has suffered from the strict EU regulations, despite having a high-quality product. EU food industries also are suffering from the strict limits. The limits reduce supply. This causes prices to rise, only some of essay book, which can be passed on to the consumer.
Wu recommended that EU policy makers should consider the economic impact of strict mycotoxin limits on their own food industries and citizens. Interestingly, this is already one of the objectives of the essay example new EU project MoniQA (see also the section “ The European dimension ”). Last, but not least important, is that the regulatory philosophy should not jeopardize the availability of some basic commodities at reasonable prices. Book? In developing countries, especially, where food supplies are already limited, drastic legal measures may lead to lack of food and to excessive prices. For example, the middle school admission dramatic food-security situation in parts of Africa has led to measures that prioritise food sufficiency above food safety. Mycotoxins are an important problem, as is apparent from occasional outbreaks of human mycotoxicoses, for example acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in quote title 2004 and 2005 [ 27 ], the role of aflatoxins in essay title liver cancer, the book title stunted growth in children in western Africa [ 28 ], and boite de vitesse automatique thesis, fumonisins in essay quote oesophageal cancer in South Africa [ 14 ]. In the western world, where sufficiency of food is not an issue, (low) mycotoxin limits in food are enforceable without too many difficulties. Weighing the various factors at boite de vitesse, the interface of science, food security, and regulations is not a trivial activity and quote book title, common sense is a major factor in reaching a decision.
Public health officials are confronted with a complex problem—mycotoxins, particularly the carcinogenic mycotoxins, should be excluded from school essay food as much as possible. Because the essay quote book title substances are present in foods as natural contaminants, however, human exposure cannot be completely prevented, and exposure of the population to some level of the mycotoxins has to be tolerated. At the same time analytical methodology must be capable of reliable and practical determination of these toxins at the tolerance levels. Despite the dilemmas, in shortage recent decades mycotoxin regulations have been established in many countries and newer regulations are still being drafted. Title? In the European Union, in particular, many developments are occurring in mycotoxin regulation which are scientifically underpinned and supported by a variety of European organisations and activities. The international mycotoxin regulatory situation. Several times in recent decades (1981, 1987, 1995, 2003) international inquiries were held and published about regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed [ 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ]. Persuasive Essay Steps? The most recent enquiry in 2003 was conducted by essay quote book title the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, under contract to the FAO, among the Agricultural Services of gmat, Dutch Embassies around the world, with the request to gather up-to-date information from local authorities on the situation regarding mycotoxin regulations in quote as many countries of the world as possible. Gmat Essay? Where this procedure did not lead to the desired information, personal contacts were used.
By the end of 2003 data had been received from 89 countries. Together with information gathered in previous enquiries, detailed information became available about the existence or absence of specific mycotoxin limits and regulations in food and feed in 119 countries. Essay? All the data received were sorted by country and by economic community (ASEAN, Australia and persuasive essay steps, New Zealand, EU, MERCOSUR). Information was also included about standards set by the Codex Alimentarius. For each separate entry the available data were classified into the categories food, dairy, and feed and then tabulated in alphabetic order of country. The results of the enquiry were published in quote book title detail by the FAO in Food and persuasive steps, Nutrition Paper in English, French, Spanish, and Chinese [ 5 ]. Ranges ( bars ) and major limits ( triangles ) for total aflatoxins in essay book title food [ 5 ] In Europe, and in particular in the EU, regulatory and gmat preparation, scientific interest in essay book title mycotoxins has undergone a development in the last decade from national activities and approaches towards more EU-driven activities with a structural and network character.
This can be seen not only in the harmonization of (stringent) legal limits for mycotoxins, but also in the increased significance that European programs and organizations play, in direct or indirect support of middle admission essay, these regulatory developments in the Community. Whereas regulations for aflatoxin B 1 in animal feed have existed since 1976, the first EU-harmonized regulations for mycotoxins in human food came into force in 1998 (several limits for aflatoxins, including sampling procedures and criteria for methods of analysis). They have gradually expanded to a variety of mycotoxins in quote title different foodstuffs, including baby and de vitesse automatique, children foods. At the time of writing limits have been set for approximately 40 toxin–food commodity combinations [ 29 ] and limits for a further ten toxin–commodity combinations are coming into force for several Fusarium toxins during 2007. New limits will probably also be established in the years to come for ergot alkaloids in foods, and some limits may be revised for aflatoxins, depending on EFSA scientific opinions. The EFSA is an independent body of the European Commission, established in 2002, and essay quote title, charged, among other tasks, with the development of risk assessments on issues of essay title, concern in the food and feed supply. EFSA publishes its risk assessments in the form of scientific opinions which form the main scientific basis for the preparation of EU regulations [ 30 ]. Opinions about risks of mycotoxins in food and feed are developed in EFSA’s panel on contaminants in the food chain. As an quote, example, this panel has recently (March 2007; http://www.efsa.europa.eu ) published an opinion on the potential increase in the risk to consumer health of a possible increase in current maximum levels for aflatoxins in almonds, hazelnuts, pistachios, and 12 sat essay, derived products. The panel concluded that changing the maximum levels for total aflatoxins in almonds, hazelnuts, and pistachios from 4 to 8 or 10 ?g kg ?1 would have minor effects on essay title, estimates of dietary exposure and cancer risks.
This opinion might lead to a change in EU regulatory limits for aflatoxins in tree nuts. to provide a description, harmonised at European level, of the status of mycotoxin contamination of foodstuffs in each participating member state; to group available information on each raw material and/or food product; to evaluate the best estimates of the mycotoxin dietary intake from food, both for each participating member state and at European level; and. to evaluate the mycotoxin dietary intake of particular groups of the population (high consumers, children, babies etc.). Estimated dietary intake of deoxynivalenol by de vitesse automatique lancia different population groups in several EU countries, and book, comparison with the JECFA tolerable daily intake [ 35 ] SCOOP exercises make it clear that mycotoxins are among the chemical contaminants in food to de vitesse automatique, which EU inhabitants may be exposed. Quote Title? Since 1979 the European Union has a rapid alert system for the risk of contaminants in food that are harmful to human health. The introduction of the General Food Law in 2002 [ 36 ] was an important step in the evolution of the rapid alert system for food and feed (RASFF) as it exists nowadays.
The system involves rapid information exchange between the competent authorities of the member states (including EFTA/EEA countries), the European Commission itself, and the EFSA. In the event of problems in the food chain of direct risk to human health the RASFF facilitates taking of the measures necessary to ensure consumer safety. Different kinds of notification—news notification, information notification, and alert notification—can be arranged, depending on the extent of nursing shortage, risk and the need for direct action. News notification is related to essay book title, information about food or feed safety. It is 12 sat essay, directed by one member state to other member states, solely to quote, inform them. Information notification describes an middle, identified risk of food or feed at the outer border of the EU, but requires no immediate action of other member states, although the problem also might exist for their countries. An alert notification relates to products that are on the market already. It is immediately transmitted by the Commission to other members of the network and leads to withdrawal of the risky products from the essay quote market. Information notifications distributed to the relevant network members of the EU rapid alert system for food and feed in 2005 [ 37 ] RASFF notifications provide useful data for the development of new EU measures as new Commission regulations and safeguard measures such as the special conditions for import of pistachio nuts from essay Iran [ 38 ]. All such measures are aimed at improvement and maintenance of food safety. Tasks and positioning of the EU Community Reference Laboratory for mycotoxins.
EC , European Commission; CRL , Community Reference Laboratory; NRL , National Reference Laboratory; RFL , Routine Field Laboratory. The position of the book title CEN with regard to mycotoxin regulations will also be strengthened as a consequence of the European Commission’s “Mandate for standardization addressed to CEN in boite lancia thesis the field of methods of analysis for mycotoxins in food” [ 40 ]. The new mandate falls within the framework of regulation EC no. 882/2004 [ 39 ]. This regulation stipulates that methods for sampling and analysis used in the context of official control shall comply with relevant Community rules or, if no such rules exist, with internationally recognized rules or protocols, for example those that the CEN has accepted. The view of the European Commission on CEN standards is clear: “ The establishment of standardized methods of essay quote, analysis is of utmost importance to guarantee a uniform application and control of the European legislation in all Members States. Essay Title? Standardized methods of analysis are an indispensable element in guaranteeing a high level of food safety ”. In the text of the mandate a statement is made that elaboration of the standards should be undertaken in co-operation with the broadest possible range of interested groups. Twelve such (mainly European) organizations are specifically mentioned in the mandate, which shows the importance that the European Commission attaches to a broad support for the standardized methods.
In the book title annex of the mandate the methods of analysis are specifically mentioned. These relate to patulin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, aflatoxin B 1 , ochratoxin A, and fumonisins B 1 and essay quote, B 2 in a variety of foodstuffs. For these toxin–food combinations methods are needed in view of (coming) regulations; standardized methods are not yet available, however. One of a list of tasks to be undertaken is the preparation of essay quote book, a review of updated and extended performance criteria for methods of analysis of mycotoxins. The objective is to produce an updated and extended version of the current CEN criteria document [ 41 ], which has been the basis for stipulating performance criteria for gmat essay, mycotoxin methods in current EU legislation. It is expected that the new CEN tasks, as laid down in the mandate, will be completed in 2009. In addition to the guiding or supporting role of the European organisations and structural activities described above in establishment of mycotoxin regulations in the EU, results from several EC-funded research projects may also affect EU mycotoxin regulations. Without intentionally ignoring other relevant EC projects, examples of projects with significant potential impact include “BioCop” and “MoniQA”.
These two projects are funded in quote book the EC’s 6th Framework Programme. “BioCop” ( http://www.biocop.org ) is an integrated project (IP) with more than 30 partners focussing on “new technologies to screen multiple chemical contaminants in foods”. This pan-European project runs from 2005 until 2010. BioCop methods are based not on chromatography but on new biotechnology, for example transcriptomics, proteomics, and biosensors. The project has been introduced to 12 sat example, supply regulators, consumers, and essay quote, industry with long-term solutions to the complex problems associated with chemical contaminant monitoring [ 42 ]. These methods must eventually fulfil recognised performance criteria, so they can be accepted for enforcement purposes. One of the work packages of essay book, Biocop is to deal with mycotoxins, more specifically with the essay quote book title development of new methods, including use of transcriptomics (identification of chemical residues by genomic fingerprints) and sensors (both low-cost (electrochemical) portable devices and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors) for analysis of a selection of trichothecenes of European interest (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, and T-2 and HT-2 toxins). 12 Sat Example? If successful in the first phase, the methods will be validated in interlaboratory tests and standardized by the CEN working group Biotoxins, possibly in the period after the project has been finalized.
Because mycotoxin methods permitted by EU legislation are based on performance criteria, the potential of quote, BioCop-developed methods for regulatory use is significant. “MoniQA” ( http://www.moniqa.org ) is a network of excellence (NoE), at gmat essay, the time of writing just started to run in the period 2007–2011. MoniQA has more than 60 partners. Although MoniQA is funded by the European Commission, it is a global network, including many non-EU partners, several from Asia. The full title of the project is “Towards harmonisation regarding monitoring the hazards in the food supply chain”.
In MoniQA the core consortium seeks to essay quote, establish mechanisms for boite automatique lancia thesis, coordinating and finally merging research activities, personnel, and essay book title, infrastructure [ 43 ]. MoniQA is directed toward multidisciplinary themes, named “clusters”. One of the main clusters is persuasive steps, “mycotoxins”. One key activity is the development of common strategies for harmonising and essay quote title, validating (rapid/novel) detection methods and technologies. This could possibly include methods such as those developed in BioCop. Nursing Shortage Essays? A specific work package of MoniQA will evaluate the economic effect of implementation of the analytical methods required by the new regulations in the field of food quality and safety (e.g. effectiveness, efficiency, and consistency), and to compare the effect of title, different options in middle admission essay qualitative, quantitative, and monetary terms. Risk–benefit analysis is obviously receiving more attention. With the funding of BioCop and MoniQA the European Commission has not ceased its interest in advancing the quote title development and standardization of boite de vitesse, analytical methods and sampling methods for contaminants, including mycotoxins. In the newly launched 7th Framework Programme (ranging from 2007 to 2013) large collaborative projects are foreseen in which (rapid) methods for essay quote book, mycotoxins, sampling, and standardization issues will receive attention. By the end of 2003 approximately 100 countries in the world had specific regulations in food and feed. The number of countries regulating mycotoxins has significantly increased over nursing shortage essays the years.
Comparison of the situations in 1995 and 2003 reveals that in 2003 more mycotoxins were regulated in essay quote book title more commodities and products and school admission, that tolerance limits generally remained the same or tended to quote title, decrease. Regulations have become more diverse and detailed with newer requirements with regard to official sampling procedures and analytical methods. Harmonisation of tolerance levels is occurring in several free-trade zones. In the EU, especially, the number of harmonized regulations for mycotoxins in food has rapidly grown, and will grow further in the years to come. Within one or two years EU limits will exist for approximately 50 different toxin–food combinations. Steps? These developments are scientifically underpinned, supported, and flanked by the complementary activities of a variety of European organizations or programmes (e.g. EFSA, SCOOP, RASFF, CRL, and CEN). Several large EU-funded pan-European research and networking projects (e.g. BioCop, MoniQA) also have an effect. It is, therefore, expected that in the future the scientific basis and transparency of quote book, mycotoxin regulations and standardisation and essay quote title, harmonisation of the corresponding (bio)analytical methodology will benefit from these developments.
The authors wish to thank the Food and essay quote title, Agriculture Organization of the United Nations for permission to make use of material published in 2004 in FAO Food and Nutrition Paper 81: “Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in 2003”. Professor T.B. Persuasive Essay? Whitaker (North Carolina State University, USA) is essay book title, greatly acknowledged for permission to reproduce Fig. 2 . Figure 5 was reprinted from Toxicology Letters 153, Schothorst RC and gmat essay, Van Egmond HP. Report from SCOOP task 3.2.10 “Collection of occurrence data of Fusarium toxins in food and title, assessment of dietary intake by the population of EU member states” Subtask: trichothecenes, 133–143.
Copyright (2004), with permission from Elsevier [ 35 ]. Hans P. van Egmond 1 Email author Ronald C. Schothorst 1 Marco A. Jonker 1 1. Laboratory for Food and Residue Analysis National Institute for Public Health and the Environment Bilthoven The Netherlands. Published in cooperation with. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at essay title, your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.
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A Job-Seeker#8217;s Guide to quote title Successfully Completing Job Applications. by Randall S. Hansen, Ph.D. New to job-hunting? This article is designed to provide you with the critical information you need to successfully complete a job application. Should filling out an application be a stressful event? No. If you have a resume, you should have just about all the information you need. If you don#8217;t have a resume, now might be the time to create one.When are job applications used by employers? For many part-time, entry-level, and blue collar jobs, employers use applications to screen potential employees; they use the information from the applications to determine who they are going to call for a job interview.
For other types of jobs, applications are simply the paperwork the Human Resources department requires of boite automatique all job applicants; employers often ask you to complete an application after they have invited you for an interview.Why do employers use job applications? Many employers use applications as a way of standardizing the information they obtain from all job-seekers, including some things that you would not normally put on your resume. Your goal is to complete the application as completely and honestly as you can #8212; all the essay quote book time remembering that the application is a key marketing tool for you in the job-hunting process. Remember that some employers will use your application as a basis for deciding whether to call you for an interview. So, armed with this knowledge, here are the ins and outs for job-seekers of successfully completing job applications. Arrive prepared with the information you need. Be sure to bring your resume, social security card, driver#8217;s license, etc.
You probably will also need addresses and phone numbers of previous employers, as well as starting and ending salaries for each previous job. It#8217;s always better if have too much information than not enough. Read and follow instructions carefully. Middle Admission Essay. Always take a few minutes to review the entire application. Essay Quote Book. Some applications ask for information differently #8212; and all have specific spaces in which you are expected to answer questions. Think of the application as your first test in persuasive following instructions. Complete the application as neatly as possible. Remember how important handwriting was in school?
Neatness and essay quote book title, legibility count; the application is a reflection of you. Consider typing it if you have access to middle school admission a typewriter. Quote. If completing it by hand, be sure to use only a blue or black pen #8212; and consider using an erasable pen or taking some #8220;white-out#8221; to fix minor mistakes. Don#8217;t fold, bend, or otherwise mar the application. Tailor your answers to the job you are seeking. Just as with your resume and cover letter, you want to focus your education and experience to the job at automatique lancia thesis, hand. Give details of skills and accomplishments, and avoid framing your experiences in terms of mere duties and essay quote title, responsibilities. Show why you are more qualified than other applicants for the position. Example. Include experience from all sources, including previous jobs, school, clubs and organizations, and volunteer work. If you#8217;re having trouble identifying some of your skills, read our article about quote book transferable skills.
Don#8217;t leave any blanks. One of the reasons employers have you complete an application is because they want the same information from all job applicants. However, if there are questions that do not apply to you, simply respond with #8220;not applicable,#8221; or #8220;n/a.#8221; Do not write #8220;see resume#8221; when completing the application (but you can certainly attach your resume to the application). Don#8217;t provide any negative information. Persuasive Steps. As with any job search correspondence, never offer negative information. Your goal with the application is to get an interview. Providing negative information (such as being fired from a job) just gives the employer a reason not to interview you. Always answer questions truthfully. The fastest way for quote book title, an application to hit the trash can is to have a lie on essay, it, but that doesn#8217;t mean you need to give complete answers either. For example, many applications ask your reason for leaving your last job.
If you were fired or downsized, you should try to be as positive as possible and essay quote, leave longer explanations for the interview; some experts recommend writing #8220;job ended#8221; as the reason you left your last job. Do not put specific salary requirements. Essays. It is way too early in the job-seeking process to allow yourself to be identified by a specific salary request. You don#8217;t want to give employers too much information too soon. In addition, employers often use this question as a screening device #8212; and you don#8217;t want to be eliminated from consideration based on your answer. It#8217;s best to say #8220;open#8221; or #8220;negotiable.#8221; You can find lots more information about essay all aspects of salary and benefits by going to our Salary Negotiation Tutorial. Provide references. Employers want to see that there are people who will provide objective information about you to them.
Pick your references carefully #8212; and make sure you ask if they are willing to school be a reference for you before you list them. Essay Book. Where do you get references? From past employers, to teachers, to family friends. Most young job-seekers have a mix of professional and book, character references, while more experienced job-seekers focus on professional references who can speak of your skills and accomplishments. Keep your application consistent with your resume. Make sure all dates, names, titles, etc., on your application coincide with the information on your resume. Don#8217;t worry if the application is based on essay quote, chronological employment while you have a functional resume. Don#8217;t know the boite de vitesse lancia difference between the two types of resumes? You might want to visit one of essay title our Resume Tutorials. Middle Admission Essay. Proofread your application before submitting it.
Once you#8217;ve completed the application, sit back and take a moment to thoroughly proofread the book title document, checking for all errors #8212; especially typos and misspellings.One final word. Be prepared for all kinds of job applications, from simple one-page applications to quote multi-page applications; and some will be clean and crisp copies while others will appear to quote book be photocopied a few too many times. Regardless, take your time and do the best you can, always keeping in book title the back of your mind the goal of the application #8212; getting you an interview.If you have not heard from the employer within a week of book submitting your application, you should follow-up with the employer. There#8217;s truth to the #8220;squeaky wheel#8221; cliche. Ask for an interview #8212; and de vitesse automatique lancia thesis, ask to have your application kept on file.Other parts of Quintessential Careers that might help you: Questions about some of the terminology used in this article? Get more information (definitions and links) on key college, career, and job-search terms by going to quote book our Job-Seeker#8217;s Glossary of Job-Hunting Terms.
Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of persuasive steps Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on essay, the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. Nursing Shortage Essays. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the essay book title Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. He#8217;s often quoted in automatique lancia thesis the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr. Hansen is also an educator, having taught at the college level for more than 15 years.
Visit his personal Website or reach him by quote book email at randall(at)quintcareers.com. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. Maximize your career and job-search knowledge and essays, skills! Take advantage of The Quintessential Careers Content Index, which enables site visitors to locate articles, tutorials, quizzes, and worksheets in 35 career, college, job-search topic areas. Essay. Stay up to date with the latest salary information form LiveCareer#8217;s Salary Calculator! Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of book title career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and quote title, develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Randall S. 12 Sat. Hansen.
Dr. Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the essay quote book title oldest and most comprehensive career development sites on 12 sat essay, the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. He is essay book title, publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the essays Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Essay Quote. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles. Essay Title. He’s often quoted in essay book the media and conducts empowering workshops around the country. Finally, Dr.
Hansen is also an essay quote book educator, having taught at essay quote title, the college level for more than 15 years. Visit his personal Website or reach him by email at firstname.lastname@example.org. Check out Dr. Hansen on GooglePlus. I AM A CAREER CHANGER This page is your key source for all things career-change related. You#8217;ll find some great free career-change tools and resources. Essay Quote Title. Changing careers can be traumatic, especially if you have been in your current career for a long time, but you do not have to go through the process alone or  Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog. Quintessential Careers: Career and Job-Hunting Blog Career and essay, job-search news, trends, and scoops for job-seekers, compiled by the staff of book title Quintessential Careers.The Quintessential Careers Blog has moved!! These pages remain as an archive of our previous blog posts.
Please check out the new and improved Quintessential Careers Blog for Job-Seekers and essay book title, Careerists. Interview Advice Job  The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers. The Quintessential Directory of Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to nursing essays the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the essay  Quintessential Careers: I am a Career Coach or Counselor. The Quintessential Directory of shortage Company Career Centers Where job-seekers can go directly to essay quote title the job/career/employment section of a specific employer#8217;s Website.Because more and more companies are developing career and employment centers on their corporate Websites, Quintessential Careers has developed this directory, which allows you to go straight to the career and employment section of the  Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Customer Service Customer Service. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST.
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Essay On Sports Day In School Essays and Research Papers. Every school celebrates its Sports Day and, to this all, the quote book title children very longingly look forward to. My . school the St. Automatique Lancia Thesis? Andrews Sr. Secondary School also has its Sports Day every year sometime in quote book title, the month of middle admission November. The month of November is earmarked for the occasion, as, at this time, the weather is congenial for a long span of games on the field. When this day is about to come, there appears to be a lot of activity in essay quote title, the entire school premises as take lime.
Avocado so there is a lot of. High school , The Guest 747 Words | 3 Pages. r my “FRIEND” u r the “BEST”. A special friend is rare indeed, it beems to be special breed, yes, perfect friends r very few, so lucky I m for gmat essay preparation, . having you. They say it takes a minute 2 fine a special person, an hour 2 appreciate them, a day 2 love them, but then an entire life 2 forget them. When God opened the book title window of the Heaven He asked me: What is your wish for today? “I said : please take special care of the person reading this. ” Time might lead me to nowhere and faith might. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Love 876 Words | 3 Pages. My First Day of High School “Beep, Beep, Beep!” 6:00 A.M my alarm clock was activated, it was time for quote, me to get ready and . Essay Quote Title? prepared myself for my first day of High School as a freshman student in Piscataway Vo – Tech High School . Fear, excitement, and all of these different emotions were running through my head as I wondered how difficult high school would be, who I would sit with at school essay lunch time or if I would be able to memorize my locker combination. Essay Quote Title? My first day of persuasive essay high school as a freshman. 2006 albums , Education , High school 1086 Words | 3 Pages.
Reflective Essay- First day of school. ? Approaching the intimidating building that holds the future of not only the rest of my high school career, but my entire life, I continue to . feel a longing for my old school . I wish for my old friends who I know will recognize me and essay quote book, jump to steps, greet me; my old routine that I grew so accustomed to. But none of that matters now. All that matters is that I currently feel like a “nobody” and I’m certain that is all that I’ll feel for title, the next two agonizing years of my life. Is it just my imagination. High school , Laughter , Pessimism 905 Words | 3 Pages. IN SCHOOL SPORTS Sports in school are very important.
IN SCHOOL SPORTS Sports in school are very important. Essay? Sports effect schoolwork and . homework greatly. Sports can have a negative affects on your schoolwork. Sports also help you meet new friends and can increase self-confidence. You also tend to stay out of trouble when you are on sports . Essay Quote Title? Sports also bring a lot to the community.
Sports can affect your schoolwork greatly. It can affect your grades in two ways, good or bad. Most schools like Rocky Point have a program where if you are failing your. College , Game , High school 1490 Words | 4 Pages. Sports and School (My experience) School starts at a young age for most kids. They go to learn Arithmetic, English, . History, and get a general education for life. They also learn to essay, deal with others outside of their family and close friends. Such was the case for myself. I lived on a farm where my neighbor was my best friend till he moved away.
I then had one year till school would start for book, me, which I would spend with my family, and one or two friends who I would see occasionally. When school . American football , Education , High school 1185 Words | 3 Pages. The Pitfalls of High School Sports. Children are often exposed to sports at an early age. As they get older and start school they often participate in . Essay? sports as a way to both make now friends and be active. As the essay quote book children grow older, progressing into their teenage years, they become more specialized in their sports . The sports that the young people continue with grow in their favor. When the child reaches the high school level, sports take center stage.
The pressure for them to perform in sports and essay, perform well is book title, immense. There. American football , College , Extracurricular activity 1511 Words | 4 Pages. 1 Research Topic How organized sports affect students’ performances in academics. Boite De Vitesse Lancia? Hypothesis Organized sports have more . positive than negative effects on essay quote book title students’ academic performance. Background for the research Most countries in the world have facilitated sports for extra-curricular activities in schools . Gmat? Sports provide an opportunity for quote book, which students can develop their physical fitness, mental stability, leadership qualities and teamwork skills. Sports play an integral part in automatique thesis, the development. Extracurricular activity , High school 1023 Words | 4 Pages.
Badminton becoming a school sport. Throughout the world Australia is essay title, known for its elite sport and performers such as Catherine Freeman (Athletics), Shane Warne (cricket) and Pat . Rafter (tennis). Gmat Preparation? Badminton is one of the essay quote title sports in Australia that is not fondly looked upon as a major sport as its participation rates are only 0.3% in essay quote, adults (Australian Sports Comission , 2012). Quote Book? Professor Peter Figueroa developed a tool to example, investigate the issues surrounding, equality and equity in sport , physical activity and essay book title, access. This has become better. Australia , Badminton , Badminton World Federation 1220 Words | 3 Pages. people do not realize the importance of high school sports ; let me tell a story. There were two completely different kids that . went to the same high school . One of essay preparation them participated in high school sports from Fall to Spring. This kid kept up with his grades and kept busy with sports and homework. The other kid did not participate in any kind of essay title school sports . The kid who didn’t play any sports went home after school every day , so instead of nursing shortage essays playing sports or doing homework in essay quote book, the free time available. Exercise , Exercise physiology , Extracurricular activity 1961 Words | 5 Pages.
Kevin Walters Go Team! Sports have become a huge part of persuasive steps this country’s culture, and the sports fans make up a good portion of quote title . the population. Every other conversation you hear, whether it be at the water cooler or in a bar, has something to do with some big play or blown call that happened the night before. The popularity of sports has grown magnificently in just the last 24 years that I have been a sports fan. What used to be all the men yelling and cussing at shortage the TV, has become almost as popular. Bandwagon , Fan , Season ticket 1083 Words | 3 Pages. what da hell let me sign up man I just want essays . Rainy day This year the essay quote book summer season was unduly long and extremely hot.
It . was July, the shortage essays schools had reopened. The scorching sun and the extreme heat had made life unbearable. Going to the school , studying in the class or playing on the ground all seemed to be a punishment. One morning, clouds .Rain is a great blessing after the summer heat. In India the scorching heat of the summer months of May and June causes great suffering to quote, animal and plant-life. College , High school , Rain 1430 Words | 4 Pages. Empowerment Programme CBSE Stream Praveshanotsav Young Innovators World Environment Day Relax… Re-learn…. and Refresh… . Mahakavi Ulloor Birth Centenery Table Tennis Champs Felicitation Vayanadinam Leading the Way Be Alert……. Be Secure… P.T.A meeting Sweet-teens Feast of gmat essay Mount Carmel Inservice Programme Inauguration of Clubs Talents Day Annual Sports Meet Immunization Drive Carme Quest 2009 Quiz Wizards 'Evergreen’ Victory . 1966 , 1967 , 1969 1455 Words | 6 Pages. Persuasive Essay: Cheerleading Is a Sport. face on cheerleading.
Cheerleading in America is no longer a matter of waving pom-poms, a cute smile and being overly perky. Title? Calling themselves athletes, not . eye candy, cheerleaders are pushing harder for recognition as participants in an official sport . Essay Preparation? Today, cheerleading involves skills which require the essay quote strength of football, the grace of dance, and the agility of essay gymnastics. Complex maneuvers are performed which challenge the essay limits of the essay body. Safety organizations such as the American Association. Cheering , Cheerleading , High school 1805 Words | 5 Pages. ?Festival and essay, Sports days We had a festival on 12 sat essay Tuesday. I really looked forward to enjoying our festival. Actually, I have . Essay Title? experience to go another University’s festival. It was interesting because their festival was made by students. I mean I could feel lots of freedom, not any limit or restrictions.
There were 30 or more various booths that we could enjoy University student’s life like beer bar. However, our festival had only 10 something booths and automatique thesis, it was too ordinary. And they forced to pay. Education , Human , Student 1572 Words | 4 Pages. Sheffield Hallam University Academy of Sport amp; Physical Activity ------------------------------------------------- BSc (Hons) . Sport Business Management Hong Kong Undergraduate Sport Programme ------------------------------------------------- Title: Contemporary Issues in Sport CODE: 66-6958-00S Name: WU Ho Nam SHU Student No: 91207381 SHAPE Student No: I1207381 Topic: LONDON 2012 Olympics legacy INTRODUCTION Olympic Games, the biggest sports event in the world, every athlete. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2010 Winter Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics 2288 Words | 7 Pages.
High School and Persuasive Essay Topics. Persuasive Essay Topics By: Mr. Essay Quote Book Title? Morton Whether you are a student in need of a persuasive essay topic, ora teacher looking to de vitesse automatique lancia, . assign a persuasive essay , this list of quote book 101 persuasive essay topics should be a great resource. I taxed my brain to create this huge list of nursing essays persuasive essay topics relevant to today's society, but I believe I am happy withthe results. I appreciate any and all comments or feedback. 1. Should students be allowed to have cell phones in essay, elementary and high schools ? 2. College , Education , Fast food 1105 Words | 4 Pages. Back To School Melissa French English 121 Ms.Laloni February 28, 2011 Back to School Many careers currently require . that an applicant have some type of higher education in order to persuasive steps, have a chance at competing for a job in today's market. Therefore, returning back to essay quote book title, school to essay, complete my degree was a very rational decision for me to make. We are sometimes told that experience is the book title key to steps, getting the perfect job, but in my years in the workforce I have learned that is not always the case. Academic degree , Bachelor's degree , Early childhood education 931 Words | 3 Pages.
Benefits in High School Sports In high school sports , there are a number of . negative and positive aspects that are associated with this industry. Regardless, many students decide they want to show case their talents at book an early age. With the proper guidance and teaching, there are many benefits to playing high school sports for the athlete, their families and essay quote book, the community. Essay Quote Book? The benefits include education, moral support and responsibility. As long as the student athlete stays on. College , Education , High school 886 Words | 3 Pages. A form of essay art that should be recognized as a sport A sport is activities that consist of physical attempt, ability, . Title? entertainment, and mental activity. Dance, gymnastics and skateboarding, are said to be a physical art, but why can’t they be considered as competitive sport . Dance isn’t just a form of art, it can also be competitive. Dance is something that takes strength, time, flexibility, and tons of practice. Dance team is always looked at as the entrainment or just performing, never seen.
Cheerleading , Dance , Dance music 1078 Words | 3 Pages. 1. 2. describe how the middle school essay warm up and cool down exercises relate to the principles of biomechanics and human anatomy and physiology. Give several examples . to illustrate your point. Essay Book? Warm up – warming up before doing any physical sport is important because it decreases the boite de vitesse lancia thesis chance of getting hurt. It increases your blood temperature which increases the blood flow. More oxygen gets to your muscles which makes them work more efficiently. Essay Title? It also increases muscle temperature so it can contract and. Blood , Delayed onset muscle soreness , Exercise 1067 Words | 4 Pages.
students go to school for four of five days a week? Portsmouth is a small school district in central Rhode Island. . This town's council is de vitesse automatique lancia, not giving the schools enough money, so that is why there are so many budget cuts. Many of the decisions of the school system are pressured upon the school committee. This school's committee, like every school committee, has been elected to office by the parents and the town's people. Portsmouth should have a four day school week because the essay quote four day week saves money. Education , English-language films , Gymnasium 871 Words | 3 Pages. February 14, 2012 How sports effect society I’m of persuasive two minds about Wilfred Sheed claim that sports play a positive role . in society. On the one hand I agree that sports had many positive influences on society, on the other hand sports have negative effects as well. Sports can build one’s character and promote the virtues of honesty, respect, selfless teamwork, dedication and commitment to book title, a greater cause. Over the past 150 years sports have tremendously changed. Sports play the boite fundamental role.
Play , Student athlete 952 Words | 3 Pages. Benefits of High School Sports . Essay Quote Book Title? I have always been an athletic person. Persuasive Essay Steps? As far back as I can remember, I have been involved in essay quote, . sports and I don’t know what I would do if I didn’t have sports apart of my life. Sports have meant so much to preparation, me over essay book title, my years of growing up. I was always encouraged to boite de vitesse lancia thesis, be a part of different types of title athletic programs. Sports are not for everyone, but playing a sport is definitely beneficial for high school students. Activities and sports in schools is example, a great way for. A Great Way to Care , College , Education 1019 Words | 3 Pages. The Importance Of Sport In Our Schools. ?The Importance of Sport in book, Our Schools Today Physical education and sports in essay book title, Canada has evolved greatly over the . Title? last two centuries through legitimizing sport in nursing shortage essays, the Canadian school curriculum. Especially now, with childhood obesity increasing, establishing physical activity as a positive element in young people’s lives seems more important than ever before.
Athletic programs can help students build and maintain lifelong relationships with sport and physical activity. Physical education’s purpose. College , Education , Exercise 1024 Words | 3 Pages. not being interested in history or affairs of essay book title other countries, and praising everything “truly American”. All of the features associated with the stereotype . of an American can be found in every part of their life and culture e.g. in their attitude to sports . American have a tireless work ethic. They struggle hard to achieve their aims. Working only for the sake of work is simply pointless according to essay, their philosophy. Theodore Roosevelt in his speech to the people of Chicago said that he preaches. Baseball , Basketball , Major League Baseball 1894 Words | 5 Pages. Why Sports Are an Important Part of book title High School Life. Sports Are an Important Part of High School LifeHard work spotlights the character of people: some turn up their sleeves, some . turn up their noses, and some don't turn up at all.
Sam Ewig explains the way many people react to hard work. These habits begin to middle school admission essay, appear in many of our lives when we are young and introduced to sports such as soccer and football which challenge our physical and essay quote book, mental abilities. Every teenager has a sport that fits him and his personality. For instance, if a teen were. A Great Way to Care , Adolescence , College 1330 Words | 3 Pages. activity itself or sports team participation, which may involve requirements for maintaining certain grades, for example. The purpose of this . study is to examine the associations between sports team participation, physical activity, and academic outcomes in middle and nursing, high school students. Essay Quote? Methods: Data were drawn from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a survey of middle and high school students (n = 4746). Students self-reported their weekly hours of middle school essay physical activity, sports team participation. College , Education , High school 2039 Words | 7 Pages. Introduction Sports have existed in essay book, our society for middle school admission essay, thousands of essay book years; Ancient Greece introduced formal sports with the boite de vitesse automatique thesis first . Olympic Games in 776 BC.
They have evolved over the years and will, without a doubt, always continue to be a part of quote book title society. The 204 nations who participated in lancia thesis, the 2012 Olympics give a glance of how almost everyone in the world is exposed to sports . There is absolutely no doubt that the world’s society is affected by sports . However, the question at hand is not whether sports affect. Affect , American football , Ancient Olympic Games 1058 Words | 3 Pages. that’s what most high school students define as a typical cheerleader. Quote? Most of the teenagers in the wolrld will have this opinion. Along with . being the essay blondes of the school , cheerleaders are also seen as wanna-be athletes.
I mean, all they do is just cheer on other teams, right? They don’t actually do anything other than a few back-flips here or there. Essay Book? How hard could it be? The answer is a lot harder than one would think. Although cheerleading is gmat essay, formally deemed not a sport , it is actually one of. Cheering , Cheerleading , Dance 893 Words | 3 Pages. Fun, scary, and nurve recking.
The first day of essay quote title highschool. School? New school , new teachers, and essay quote, new friends, all part of . another new school year. De Vitesse Lancia Thesis? This one is quote title, different though, its the first day of high school . Some kids act really scared or nurvice and others dont. Essay Book Title? The truth is, mostly everyone who walks through those doors for essay quote book, the first time is in one way or another scared. Some other students think that the first day is the easiest, because of no work having to essays, be done, and. Chair , College , High school 464 Words | 3 Pages. The Disadvantages of Full Day Schools. Disadvantages on Full Day School Introduction Full day schooling refers to a longer day at . preschool where they not only quote, learn but are also given time for play. (Lamphere, 2009) Full day preschools run for five hours or longer for five days a week. Gmat Essay? Half day preschools run for approximately 3 hours for five days a week. (Rosamilia, 2008) Researchers have constantly compared these two types of schooling and most studies came to a conclusion that full day schools are better than half day schools . There are a.
Early childhood education , Education in Singapore , Kindergarten 1853 Words | 5 Pages. Interscholastic/Intercollegiate Sports. Anthony Pisano SPT Interscholastic/Intercollegiate sports Paper 2 In the book Social Issues in Sport by Ronald B. Woods . chapter 7: Interscholastic and Intercollegiate sport the author talks about high school and college athletes and some of the issues they face whether it is essay quote, academic or even financial issues. According to the NFHS, the number of nursing essays students participating in high school sports has increased for 20 consecutive years and continues to grow each year (Woods 122). The chapter stated. American football , Basketball , Bob Costas 1461 Words | 4 Pages.
Pros and Cons of Four Day School Week Pro: Saving Money and Saving Jobs * Shortening the school week can . address budget deficits and essay, save teachers who would have to be laid off otherwise. In the case of Peach County, Georgia, the district either needed to shorten the school week or cut 39 teachers from the workforce in the 2009 to 2010 school year, according to de vitesse automatique lancia, Fox News. Essay Quote Book? Shaving a day from the school week saves money without sacrificing teaching talent. This approach makes sense if a district. Curriculum , Education , Extracurricular activity 843 Words | 3 Pages. 7 PERIOD IF I WERE PRESIDENT ESSAY ! If I were president, two of my main focuses would be reducing job cuts and going make more . jobs. Shortage? My first plan of action would be to quote title, reduce gas prices by not importing oil; I would drill it here in the U.S. That would slowly build us more money, meaning less job cuts. Also, we could reduce the mass production of de vitesse thesis sweets and essay quote title, would save money by not using factories as much, also reducing pollution in the air, which is one way to essay, go green. Recently the.
Education , Famine , Food 1082 Words | 3 Pages. children active and book title, healthy. It is so that they don’t become lazy and quote, unmotivated. By playing sports it is a way for kids to become active and essay, . sociable with other kids around them rather than having them sit on the computer all day or watching T.V. When it comes to team sports it can have its advantages and disadvantages, it can be worthwhile for that kid or it can end up in a disaster. Being in a team sport takes effort and dedication, when a team member is down and was counting on you to be there. American football , Brain , Concussion 1453 Words | 3 Pages. Importance Of Sports Now a days people are tending away from nursing shortage essays, physical games and activities. The reason is either lots of . Quote? studies or the computer games, an ill-fated shortcut. Read this resource and realize the importance of games and sports in 12 sat essay example, one's life.
Importance of Sports and Games 'All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy'. Rightly said so, that education without activities is always incomplete. A child may mug up the history textbook, but for how long? May be till the last bell. Nutrition , Sport , United States 674 Words | 3 Pages. Broyles November 5, 2014 Why all Schools Should Have a Four Day School Week Changing the five day . school week has been argued for and against essay quote book, due the controversy as to essay preparation, whether or not it would actually be beneficial to students and teachers. When approaching the idea, many people would like to believe that five day school weeks are the most efficient and productive way to educate our youth.
What is often overlooked, however, is that it is causing students to dread school more than they already do, and. College , Education , Grammar school 990 Words | 3 Pages. 12/4/12 World Lit. Essay The Underdog has Won! Did you see the ending of that Duke game! The president, Bill Clinton, was astonished by . the miraculous ending of the Kentucky vs. Duke game. Just about book anybody you could talk to boite thesis, would know about the game and also be astonished by it. This can show the title effect a game can produce on a person and a school . During college sports games, a school and fans can be affected in a jubilant or a depressing way. For example, a school could begin to build a. 2007 Fiesta Bowl , American football , BCS National Championship Game 1003 Words | 3 Pages.
Injustice in Schools - Discursive Essay. (You will need to change the ending and essay quote, make a conclusion. Book? I got an A/A- for this essay because it was not finished.) Is this a phrase that . you often hear? I am sure it is, but why are these three words such a significant part of our daily speech? Is it because we are living in essay example, a barbaric, unjust society? Or is essay quote, it because we are living with our own ideas of what and how things should be done and when someone else comes with their philosophy on gmat preparation life behavior we accuse them of bringing a serious injustice.
College , Education , Grammar school 1198 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on School Benefits of Facebook. Facebook should be utilized in schools by teachers and students. If Facebook was integrated into schools , it would provide an . effective means for teachers and their students to communicate outside of the classroom. Facebook is a social network which currently helps more than 400 million people communicate every day . Quote Title? Unfortunately, there are people who are opposed to de vitesse thesis, utilizing Facebook in essay book title, this manner.
Many opposed hold positions in which they are responsible for deciding the use of Facebook outside. Education , Facebook , High school 967 Words | 3 Pages. Leadership in a Changing World There are a lot of factors that affect schools . A few of persuasive those factors are: environmental and . contextual issues. It is these two factors that influence or shape the school’s climate and community. Essay Quote Book? It takes the collaboration of our administrators, school improvement team, teachers, parents, students and the community to bring the change and help needed to advance the vision of the school . A school is capable of fully functioning at gmat essay a high level with all of the stakeholders. Abuse , Bullying , College 1389 Words | 4 Pages. until five each night. When you come home after school there is no one home with you. What could you get into? You might know right from wrong . but you still might get yourself into some trouble.
Just out of essay plain curiosity you might get into something or an accident could happen without you even being involved in it. But I say there is a way to stop this from essay, ever happening. I think we should either keep schools open longer or introduce more after school programs. Many advantages would come from either. College , Grade , High school 836 Words | 4 Pages.
the law schools at the University of Missouri and the University of quote book title Texas to be integrated in Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada, 1938, and . Sweatt v. Painter, 1950. School Essay? Neither case had made the frontal assault needed to overturn the Plessy standard. Essay Quote Book Title? However, the 1950s brought a new wave of persuasive essay challenges to official segregation by essay quote book, the NAACP and other groups. Circumstances of the Case Linda Brown, an eight-year-old African-American girl, had been denied permission to attend an elementary school only five. Brown v. Persuasive Essay Steps? Board of Education , Earl Warren , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 961 Words | 3 Pages.
?Practicing a sport is much more than the sole act of pushing my body through exhaustion or using my skills to reach a goal. Many positive . results come with participating in essay book, a sport . There aren’t too many negatives that can take place. After getting involved in sports , there are many effects that can happen including physical, human and social effects. Steps? The first major effect of practicing a sport is that I will develop physical abilities. Essay Title? My body will be in better shape, and boite de vitesse lancia thesis, I’ll be able to achieve. Better , Exercise , Hypertension 1912 Words | 5 Pages. School Environment Analysis Essay. School Environment Analysis Essay Errick Lowe Grand Canyon University May 9, 2013 In the world of . Essay Book? education, there are many different challenges and needs that a school will face or have at any given time. As leaders we have to be willing and shortage, ready to take on all challenges that a school may pose and come up with good solutions that will promote the success of the students and essay quote book, the school as a whole. Example? I have chosen to research the school that I work at and the quote title environmental/contextual.
Education , Educational psychology , High school 1384 Words | 4 Pages. Dalton: University and College Sports. Persuasive Essay Language I 4th hour Dalton Wright Should College Athletes Get Paid? Do you think college athletes should be paid . while they are in season? If you do think that college athletes should be paid by the University to play a sport or sports , then I disagree. You are probably thinking that I am crazy for essay, saying that college athletes should not get paid, but just here me out on why I think they shouldn’t be paid. They get full ride scholarships! College athletes get full. American football , College , Football 935 Words | 3 Pages. grocery baskets from the parking lot so cars do not have trouble navigating and to essay, keep our supply of grocery karts handy for incoming customers * Help . customers find items throughout the store, and keep the shelves stocked with goods throughout the day Education College of Southern Nevada Degree in progress Business Major . Blue Cross and Blue Shield Association , Customer , Customer service 559 Words | 3 Pages. Kalmanson Persuasive Essay November 26, 2012 Physical Education is 12 sat essay example, a Necessity Schools are struggling with the issue of . whether physical education classes (“PE”) are a necessity or are an extra-curricular.
However, PE is and must be an essay book title absolute necessity. Nursing? It is book, integral to the comprehensive school experience, both academically and socially. Shortage? As such, it is vital that physical education classes be incorporated into the curriculum, regardless of grade. High school students are underperforming. College , Exercise , Grammar school 868 Words | 3 Pages. discoveries of Christopher Columbus? The problem is exactly what you just read, people only know the good things Christopher Columbus brought to the world . and essay quote book, they ignore the essay quote title terrible things he did. On Columbus Day it is appropriate to discuss Christopher Columbus's legacy. Title? Critics seem emboldened on the day we recognize the nursing shortage essays famous mariner's arrival in the New World. Was Columbus the essay quote book barbaric sadist his detractors claim?
Or was he a great explorer and discoverer? He was instrumental in opening up the New. Americas , Christopher Columbus , Colonialism 1049 Words | 3 Pages. “? Football After School ? ” What Parental feelings does McCarthy explore in the poem and how does she use language to 12 sat essay example, present them to you? . Football after school is a poem about a mothers, or the essay book title poets’, struggles in the harsh realisation of her son maturing, and title, having to essay quote book, experience school . Patricia is feeling powerless and worried about nursing shortage her sons inevitable future of quote book him going to school which he has to admission essay, endure. We observe the poet sharing her thoughts, and essay quote book, images, in each verse her view changes. Alliteration , American football , Anxiety 1515 Words | 3 Pages. Kabul Beauty School Essay : Topic # 2 With a strict and unforgiving hand the Taliban ruled over Afghanistan from the middle school 90's . Quote Book? until 2001. The Taliban hold an extremist interpretation of teachings from the Koran, the Islamic holy book. According to them, the book title Taliban, the Koran states that God has deemed the man of the house as the primary authority figure; they have rule over essay book title, every one in 12 sat example, the household be it wife or child. Their interpretation states, also, that women are not to reveal any part. Afghanistan , Central Asia , Hazara people 1198 Words | 3 Pages.
Rhetoric and Composition 1020 18 September 2012 Ask any student in public high school what they like and quote book title, dislike about school . 12 Sat Example? . Odds are, they will say that what they enjoy most about school is the social interactions it allows them to essay quote book, take part in, and nursing shortage essays, what they dislike about school is the classes. John Taylor Gatto, in “Against School : How Public Education Cripples our Kids, and quote, Why,” discusses the essay reasons for such boredom in an in depth manner. Essay Quote Title? Most of the time, nowadays, it is not the amount. Education , High school , School 1116 Words | 3 Pages. ?On Monday morning I woke stretching to switch my buzzing alarm clock off it was 7am.
I did not sleep very well because it was my first day at . secondary. Part of the night I was feeling restless but I did not know why. I was feeling rather anxious throughout the night but I was happy to start a new life. Persuasive Essay Steps? I worked over to open the blinds for once the sun was shining bright as my new uniform. I worked over to make sure that my uniform was still hanging in wardrobe. My uniform was looking unique there. College , Feeling , High school 1290 Words | 3 Pages. Refutation essay - “ school uniforms are a terrible idea” The essay school uniforms are a terrible . idea states that. School uniforms fail to achieve the goals for which a school uniform was established suck as to save students money to, to quote title, prevent violence, and create a more organized school environment. The essay also states the uniforms restrict student’s freedom of expression. That school uniforms have led to more violence and school admission, that since no studies have yet proven that a uniform policy can solve.
Argument , Argumentation theory , Attacking Faulty Reasoning 986 Words | 3 Pages. technology in relevant and real-world ways in essay book title, the classroom. All of the materials are provided for free to teachers and teacher leaders to use within . their professional development practices within the schools and steps, districts. Any of the content can be customized for use within your schools and essay quote book, districts. Essay Book Title? There is content to support four workshops designed for K-12 teachers in essay book, the four folders provided. Persuasive Essay? Each workshop is essay quote book, designed to run about 3 hours. Each folder contains all of the digital.
Education , Microsoft , Microsoft Office 863 Words | 3 Pages. Watkins 1 Ms. Peet English 110.20 20 October 2011 Synthesis Essay If cheerleading were any easier, it would be called football. . Boite Automatique Lancia Thesis? In most cases, many people tend to essay book title, laugh at the idea of cheerleading being called a sport . For decades cheerleading has been seen as a girls’ only activity. Not many people know that cheerleading was started by a man from essay example, Princeton University. Quote? According to Dictionary.com a sport is defined as “an athletic activity requiring skill or physical prowess. Cheering , Cheerleading , Major League Baseball 1512 Words | 5 Pages. make your life are changing after you walked into the campus at first day in college. Automatique Lancia? I used to think about the essay book title class in college which is . different from in high school . Those people who are older than me, they have told me that college would be new life for me. Middle School Admission? That college would show me what is the differently between college and quote book title, high school . I was really wondering about it, I didn't know anything since the first year and first day . Middle? Everything I knew before I went to college that was I had to studied.
Academia , College , Education 850 Words | 3 Pages. Memories of the first day of school. As I crawled into bed to go to quote title, sleep that night, the ease of persuasive summer slowed fade into the responsibility of the essay book school year. As the alarm clock . rings promptly at 7:15 the preparation next morning, all traces of essay book summer vanished into September's doldrums. Example? Once again, it was September! To most of us was the beginning of the quote school year that morning and to some of us was just and ordinary day . 12 Sat Essay Example? The air was crisp and cool, the title trees exploded with brightly colored leaves and beautiful roses lying on bushes with their. Alarm clock , Class , Education 1041 Words | 3 Pages. Essay on Sports Sponsorship Sport Sponsorship is a very important issue in Germany. Many Sports . Clubs act as companies which merchandise products and promote sports shows. They need sponsors for middle admission, financing the sport events, the athletes or teams. It is important that the athlete or team has a very good environment so they can do a good job and concentrate on best results.
Sport has become a product that companies pay for. However, why and for what does the book industry invest into 12 sat essay example this product? . Advertising , Coca-Cola , Eintracht Frankfurt 633 Words | 3 Pages.